Brief with Latest Data/References
VBKVK is located in the Badgaon Block of Udaipur district in south-west Rajasthan and is in the midst of the Aravali mountain ranges. The geographical boundaries of the district extend from 23.45” to 24.8” North Latitudes and from 73.9” to 74.35” East Longitudes. Udaipur district has an estimated population of 26.33 million, 55% of which are tribal. Of the eleven blocks in the district, eight are composed largely of tribal communities. These communities depend primarily on agriculture and animal husbandry for their livelihoods, supplemented by income from seasonal employment in nearby towns, mining areas and commercially intensive agricultural areas in the neighbouring state. The geographical area of the district is 13419 sq. km. which is 3.65% of the state area. The terrain is predominantly hilly and undulating. The north-eastern part is plain where as south western part is mainly hilly. Nearly 42% of this area is unfit for agriculture. The region, which comes under Agro-climatic Zone IV-A (Sub-Humid South Plain and Aravali Hill Zone) is characterized by moderate rainfall and temperature variation between 0ºC - 25ºC in winters to 26ºC - 50ºC in summers.
The geographical area of the district is 13419 sq. km. which is 3.65% of the state area. The terrain is predominantly hilly and undulating. The north-eastern part is plain where as south western part is mainly hilly. Nearly 42% of this area is unfit for agriculture. The region, which comes under Agro-climatic Zone IV-A (Sub-Humid South Plain and Aravali Hill Zone) is characterized by moderate rainfall and temperature variation between 0ºC - 25ºC in winters to 26ºC - 50ºC in summers.
The district receives an average rainfall of nearly 600 m.m., which is spread over an average of 30 rainy days in a year. Extremely limited surface-water and groundwater resources and heavy soil erosion characterizes the district. Sharp fluctuations and long dry spells in monsoons occur frequently affecting the overall output of crops particularly on marginal lands having no access to irrigation.
As per 2011 census the total population of the district is 26,33,312, which is 4.47 percent of the state population. Population of rural area is 21,42,995, which is more than 80% of the total population of the district. The population density as per 2011 census is 242 persons per sq. km. The rural literacy is 55% and is much lower in the tribal areas, especially among the women. Udaipur district has a significant tribal population. The total population includes 1,58,257 persons of scheduled caste and 12,60,432 of scheduled tribes, which constitute 6% and 47.86% respectively. The southern part of the district is predominantly tribal. Jhadol and Kotra blocks in particular have tribal populations in excess of 70%.
This region is inhabited by Scheduled Tribes, mainly Bhils and Meenas. Bhils are the ancient inhabitants of southern Udaipur and continue to be the most backward community. At the same time their social life, customs, language, music and dance, fairs and festivals have this own distinctive flavour. Bhils, Meenas and Garasias of tribal tehsils live in widely scattered hamlets, known as Phalas.
Most of the land remains uncultivated due to the hilly terrain, scanty rainfall and very few sources of irrigation. Bhils own ploughs and bullocks in very small numbers. The primary source of income remains daily wage labour in towns on construction sites, on roads, on public works and at the mines.
There is wide variation in the district in terms of soil composition. Gogunda, Kotra, Jhadol, Girwa, Badgaon, Mavli and Bhinder development blocks mainly have lime dominated soil, whereas Kherwada, Sarada, Salumber and Lasadiya comprise of red loam soil. The western part of the district is mostly rocky where as south eastern part has yellowish brown soil. As stated earlier, agriculture in Udaipur is primarily rainfed. Nearly 60% of the cultivated area is under single cropping, done during the monsoon season (Kharif). Of the total area under different crops, almost 70% is utilised for cereals and millet. The important crops in the district are Maize, Wheat, Barley and Gram.
Nearly 50% of all the farm families in the district cultivate land of under 1 hectare size. The largest numbers of these small and marginal farmers are tribal, whose farming resources are extremely limited. Recurrently faced with drought, farmers have to routinely cope with situations of food and income shortages.
Land Use and Cropping Pattern
Out of the total geographical area, 4,55,693 hectare is under cultivation, which constitutes 31.41% of total area. The irrigated area is around 98,889 hectare whereas un-irrigated area is 3,56,804 hectare. The main sources of irrigation are wells, tube-wells, ponds and tanks. Out of the total irrigated area, 80% is irrigated through wells. There are 69,887 wells, 107 tube-wells and 391 tanks. There are 3 irrigation divisions and 98 irrigation projects, which have created 68,443 hectares of irrigation potential. This network includes 6 tanks with the irrigation potential of 2,500 acres. Som-Kagadar, Jaisamand, Paduna, Ogna and Chhaperia are some of the projects, which are under construction.
Majority of this area is mono-cropped and area under double-cropping is only 1,09,448 hectare. Main agricultural crops are food grains (Maize, Jowar, Wheat, Barley) pulses (Tuar, Moong, Urad and Gram) and oil seeds (Mustard, Groundnut, Sesamum and Soybean). Area under food-grains is 2,66,130 hectare, whereas area under pulses is 46,180; oil seeds is 94,977; cotton is 139 and sugarcane is 2,714 hectares. The district is a leading producer of ginger in the state, which is cultivated in around 700 hectare in Jhadol.
Rearing of animals is main subsidiary occupation of the inhabitants of the district. The total animal population constitutes 32,33,814; of which goats constitute a significant proportion. Poultry birds are 2,42,919 nos. in the district.